Deradicalization programs will likely remain a necessary part of larger counter-radicalization and counterterrorism strategies.
To succeed, deradicalization programs must include affective, pragmatic, and ideological components and considerable aftercare. In this global era, the world faces a host of security challenges which cannot be resolved by any one nation, especially through the unilateral use of military force. One key issue that requires urgent international attention is the military use of outer space. The rise of major non-Western powers makes the avoidance of traditional geopolitical rivalries a must if one wants a peaceful world order.
This is particularly relevant to Euro-Atlantic zone, which is still divided on security issues.
While an analysis of the military aspects of the Russian-Georgian conflict is important, it is also necessary to understand the timeline of political events, in Russia and Georgia, that led to the war. This volume provides an integrated perspective on the major issues that influence stability in Strategic Asia.
Growing Economies, Rising Problems – Part II | YaleGlobal Online
Without addressing Yemen's immediate security challenges—including a civil war in the North, a secessionist movement in the South, and a resurgent al-Qaeda organization—the country's long-term economic and governance issues cannot be resolved. Brazil already accounts for a quarter of intraregional exports. The emergence of the developing world and weaknesses in advanced economies — income inequality and political gridlock in the US, the debt crisis in the Eurozone, and the fiscal and demographic crisis in Japan — will lead to a very different economic order, one in which huge new markets and new sources of competition will arise, and one in which power and influence are more widely distributed.
For nearly all commodities petroleum could be a partial exception , increased demand may well be eventually matched by increased investments in supply and technological innovation that reduces production costs and develops new substitutes — as has happened historically. As business conditions in Russia, Indonesia, Africa and other natural resource exporters improve, so too will their capacity to export commodities.
Moreover, demand for commodities in Latin America will eventually be held back by a natural shift to services and goods as incomes rise, as well as by innovations which reduce the wastage and intensity of commodity use. Latin American resource-based economies may sooner or later need to strengthen their capacity to produce goods and services, the demand for which will soar as the middle class burgeons domestically and in other emerging markets.
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Given structural changes in global demand and supply implied by the rise of the emerging powers, and uncertainties inherent in predicting commodity prices, Latin America's development strategy should, say the economists, encompass a number of economic strategies — such as investing in education, strengthening governance, improving the business climate, and enhancing the capacity to innovate.
Although the relative size of the US economy is expected to decline over coming decades, the US is projected to remain an important destination for Latin America's exports, even in So, while Latin American countries will need to reorient their economic diplomacy towards emerging powers — including fostering trade and investment agreements — relationships with Europe and the US will remain critical.
Latin American countries are becoming more influential on the world stage. Brazil and Mexico are already playing a prominent role in the G20, the new premier forum for global economic decision-making, of which Argentina is also a member. But as their economic power continues to grow, say the economists, they will need to assume greater responsibility in shaping and contributing to international economic integrity.
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Latin America's countries need to define their own vision of how the global trading system, financial regulation, migration policies, development assistance, and efforts to mitigate climate change should evolve. The comparative advantages among developing countries will shift, with Africa potentially taking the place of countries like China and India in low-wage manufactures.
For example, other African countries will join Mauritius and South Africa as sources of manufactured exports.
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The rise of developing countries will also present far-reaching opportunities in international finance: As their incomes rise, firms and individuals there will take advantage of international markets, while investors in advanced countries pounce on the opportunities their growth affords. However, the institutions and policy frameworks underpinning financial stability in developing countries are even less adequate than those of advanced countries, and developing countries are intrinsically more subject to volatility.
Therefore, more than in trade, the rising weight of developing countries in finance will increase the potential for extremely costly systemic crises. The pressures for increased migration will also build as approaches, particularly as populations in rich countries age and those in poorer countries especially in Africa, remain relatively young.
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But while barriers to global trade have largely fallen over the past 50 years, barriers to immigration have progressively increased during that time. In economic terms, this is perverse, as the gains from international migration surpass the gains from trade. Conflicts surrounding the global commons — resources owned by no one but exploited by many — provide the most dramatic examples of the challenges that the rise of developing countries will pose for international cooperation.
Depletion of fish stock in the oceans is a glaring example. These issues—from limiting climate change to maintaining air quality and avoiding the exhaustion of ocean resources—require cooperation within and among countries.
But such cooperation is becoming more challenging. The rapid growth and large populations of developing countries mean they are more active in exploiting resources, but their incomes, technological capabilities, political structures and social values differ greatly from those in advanced countries.
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Though Sub-Saharan Africa has seen some progress lately, its low income means that it is a less influential driver than developing countries in Asia and South America. Many obstacles — from low savings rates to low productivity growth or weak governance — could hinder sustained progress. Two principles, then, should guide efforts to achieve continued global growth and mitigate the serious risks presented by the rise of developing countries.
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First, for better or for worse, the management of these historic forces will remain in the hands of sovereign nations — particularly the largest economies.