Subjects Biomasse. Erneuerbare Energien. Biomass energy -- Economic aspects. Biomass energy -- Environmental aspects. Renewable energy sources -- Economic aspects. Renewable energy sources -- Environmental aspects.
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Summary This book explains characteristics of renewable fuels, especially biomass and wood, and the cost-effective and environment-friendly methods of handling, storing and burning these fuels. It is complete with the economic evaluation method, introduction of the pollution control equipment for limiting the emission from fuel combustion, case studies, and costs and carbon emission comparisons between conventional and alternate fuels.
Many case studies are introduced here too. This book is an update and expansion of the "Industrial Wood Energy Handbook" by a team from the Georgia Institute of Technology in It introduces new technologies new technologies not available at the time of the early version. Introduction to alternate fuels Fuel properties and combustion theory Liquid fuels from biomass Biomass combustion equipment : steam, hot oil, and hot gas Biomass fuel storage and handling Cogeneration and power generation Emissions and control Environment and safety : rules, regulations, and safe practice Biomass fuel supply and purchasing Fuel-switching feasibility study methodology Economic analysis of biomass combustion systems Biomass fuel processing routes and economics Biomass fuel processing network Example feasibility study : nonforest products facility.
Notes Includes bibliographical references and index.
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Biomass And Alternate Fuel Systems An Engineering And Economic Guide - Semantic Scholar
By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. Ethanol is a widely used, domestically produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline in different amounts. Using ethanol in fuel also helps the nation increase the use of domestic alternative fuels, thereby potentially reducing reliance on imported oil.
Gasoline and gasoline blendstocks can also use ethanol as an octane enhancer to increase vehicle performance.
This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, and January 16, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, and October 16, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, and July 17, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions.
This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, and April 17, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The Vehicle Technologies Market Report is the eighth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.
This report is supported by the U. Department of Energy's DOE Vehicle Technologies Office VTO , and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This report is an update to the report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets.
This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.
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Department of Energy's DOE's Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas GHG emissions in transportation. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions.
NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report. Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, and July 15, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions.
Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states. This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 gasoline blended with Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions.
This guide provides a comprehensive list of the light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies. This action establishes the annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that apply to all motor vehicle gasoline and diesel produced or imported in the years , , and The EPA is establishing a cellulosic biofuel volume for all three years that is below the applicable volume specified in the Act, and is also rescinding the cellulosic biofuel standard for Relying on statutory waiver authorities, the EPA is adjusting the applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for all three years.
The standards are expected to spur further progress in overcoming current constraints in renewable fuel distribution infrastructure, which in turn is expected to lead to substantial growth over time in the production and use of renewable fuels. In this action, EPA is also establishing the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for Finally, EPA is setting the compliance and attest reporting deadlines for the years , , and , as well as finalizing regulatory amendments to clarify the scope of the existing algal biofuel pathway. This final rule is effective on February 12, Each year, the U.
Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles AFVs and hybrid electric vehicles HEVs , idle-reduction IR initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled VMT. NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this Annual Metrics Report.
Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.
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This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, , and July 15, , and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits.
This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment. A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes.
Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls.
The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.
Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards.
apimelisatest.sociocaster.com/toyota-aygo-manual-de-taller-del-mantenimiento.php Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue.
Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper. This is version Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge. When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions.
We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity used by plug-in electric vehicles , biodiesel blends of B20 and higher , E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas CNG , and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit.
Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels.